English Grammer

Articles in English
  1. Present continuous & Simple present
  2. Simple past & Past continuous
  3. Present perfect continuous & Simple present perfect
  4. For & Since
  5. “When …?” & “How long …?”
  6. Past perfect
  7. Have & Have got
  8. Used to
  9. Present tenses with a future meaning
  10. Will & Be going to
  11. Will be doing & Will have done
  12. When I do / When & If
  13. Can, Could, and Be able to
  14. Must: sure STH is true
  15. May & Might: possibility
  16. Should & Had better, and It’s time …
  17. Would
  18. Imagining situations
  19. Passive
  20. It is said that… & He is said to…
  21. Have something done
  22. Reported speech
  23. Questions
  24. Verb + ~ing (gerund)
  25. Verb + to ~ (infinitive)
  26. Verb + ~ing or to ~
  27. Be used to
  28. Infinitive & ~ing
  29. Countable & Uncountable
  30. Articles (a/an & the)
  31. The (definite article)
  32. Reflexive pronouns
  33. A friend of mine / my own house / by myself
  34. There … & It …
  35. Some & Any
  36. Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty
  37. Both, Neither, Either (for two things)
  38. All, Every, Whole
  39. Each & Every
  40. Relative clauses
  41. Adjectives & Adverbs
  42. Enough & Too
  43. Comparatives & Superlatives
  44. Word order
  45. Still / Yet / Already / Even
  46. Although, though; In spite of, despite
  47. In case
  48. Unless, As long as, Provided/Providing
  49. Like & As
  50. For / During / While
  51. By & Until
  52. At / On / In
  53. To & Into
  54. By
  55. Noun + preposition
  56. Adjective + preposition
  57. Verb + preposition
  58. Phrasal verbs
  59. Questions and Answers
    1. Part A: Put brackets around the underlined relative pronoun if it can be omitted from these sentences.
    2. Part B: If necessary, correct or make improvements to these sentences. If they are already correct, write √.
    3. Part C: Define these items using “whose” and “in which.” You may need to use a dictionary.
    4. Part D: Join the sentence halves using “which” or “whom” after an appropriate preposition.
    5. Part E: Combine the two sentences in each pair to make a new sentence containing a relative clause. Add commas where necessary.

Present continuous & Simple present

a. present continuous: for things happening at the time at the time of speaking → temporary situations
b. simple present: for things in general or that happen repeatedly → permanent situations

2) not used in the continuous: state verbs

a. I always do STH: every time
b. I’m always doing STH: too often, more often than usual (not every time)


Simple past & Past continuous

a. simple past: finished doing STH
b. past continuous: started doing STH but not finished; middle of an action

a. present perfect: from the past until now
b. simple past: finished in the past


Present perfect continuous & Simple present perfect

1) present perfect continuous: interested in the activity (duration)
2) simple present perfect: interested in the result (completion)


For & Since

1) for + a period of time
2) since + the start of a period


“When …?” & “How long …?”

1) When …? (+ simple past)
2) How long …? (+ present perfect)


Past perfect

1) past perfect: for things that happened before the starting point in the past

2) If the order of past events is clear (which event happened after another), first event: either simple past or past perfect

3) Past perfect continuous: for a period of time before STH else happened


Have & Have got

for possession, relationships, illnesses, etc.
1) declarative sentences (affirmatives & negatives)
2) questions
3) use “have” (but not “have got”) for things we do or experience


Used to

1) happened regularly in the past but no longer happens
2) for STH that was true but not any more


Present tenses with a future meaning

1) I’m doing STH: I have already decided and arranged to do it
2) I do STH: for schedules, programs, etc.


Will & Be going to

1) will: decide to do STH now
2) be going to: have already decided to do STH


Will be doing & Will have done

1) will be doing: will be in the middle of doing
2) will have done: will already be complete before a time in the future


When I do / When & If

1) I’ll call you when I get home. a future meaning but a present tense; do not use “will”
2) same after while, before, after, until, etc.
3) when: for things that are sure to happen
4) if: for things that will possibly happen


Can, Could, and Be able to

1) can: possibility, allowance, or ability “can” is more common than “is able to”
2) could: general ability
was/were able to or managed to: for specific situations

3) couldn’t: for all situations
4) could: possible actions now or in the future → similar to “might/may”
5) could: not realistic


Must: sure STH is true

1) You’ve been traveling all day. You must be tired.
2) must have done: past
3) must not (sure STH is not true) & can’t (STH is impossible)


May & Might: possibility

a. It may/might/could be true. → now
b. It may/might/could have been true. → past

2) might (not may): for not realistic situations
3) might/may as well: should do it because there is no better alternative


Should & Had better, and It’s time …

a. should: good thing to do; right thing to do
b. “ought to” instead of “should”

2) had better: advisable to do; if don’t, will be a problem or danger
3) had better & should
a. had better: only for a specific situation
b. should: in all types of situations

4) It’s time to go home. It’s time for us to go home
5) It’s time you did STH: you should have already done it or started it; for criticizing or complaining

6) I suggest you do (base form): formal; written English
a. base form after these verbs: demand, insist, propose, recommend, suggest, etc.
b. same after “It’s essential/imperative/ necessary/vital,” etc.



1) imagine a situation or an action
2) happened regularly in the past → similar to “used to”


Imagining situations

1) imagining present
typical: If S past …, S would …
→ use past, but meaning is present, not past

2) imagining past
typical: If S had+p.p…., S would have p.p….

3) complex
4) wish SB STH



1) active: what the subject does
2) passive: be + p.p.; what happens to the subject
3) when using the passive, the agent (who does or what causes the action) is often unknown or unimportant

4) if you want to say the agent, use “by”
5) various passive sentences
6) two objects → two passive sentences


It is said that… & He is said to…

1) It is said that he is 108 years old.
→ He is said to be 108 years old.

2) same structures with alleged, believed, considered, reported, known, etc.


Have something done

1) arrange for SB to do STH
a. Lisa repaired the roof. (= she repaired it herself)
b. Lisa had the roof repaired. (= she arranged for SB else to repair it)

Reported speech

a. Tom said, “I’m feeling sick.” (direct speech)
b. Tom said that he was feeling sick. (reported speech)

2)  if situation hasn’t changed, not need to change verb tense
3)  for finished situation, must use past
4)  tell SB STH & say STH (to SB)
5)  imperatives
6)  questions



1) Yes/No questions: put the first aux. (including “be”) right before the subject

2) Wh-questions:
a. put the first aux. (including “be”) right before the subject AND

b. put the question word at the beginning of a sentence

3) when the question word = the subject → no movement (do not use “do/does/did”)
4) position of prepositions
5) meaning of “Yes/No” in negative questions
6) Do you know where …?

7) tag questions
a. positive sentence + negative tag
b. negative sentence + positive tag
c. must use contracted form (negative tag)
d. voice goes down → not a real question
e. voice goes up → a real question


Verb + ~ing (gerund)

→ after “enjoy, mind, stop, finish, avoid, postpone, risk, consider, imagine, miss, admit, deny, recommend, suggest, keep,” etc.

e.g.) Suddenly everybody stopped talking.
He tried to avoid answering my question.


Verb + to ~ (infinitive)

→ after “offer, agree, refuse, decide, plan, arrange, hope, manage, fail, deserve, afford, forget, promise, threaten, learn,” etc.

e.g.) It was late, so we decided to take a taxi. I promised not to be late.


Verb + ~ing or to ~

1) a. I remember doing STH: I remember what I did
b. I remember to do STH: I remember what I have to do

2) a. try to do = make an effort to do
b. try doing = do STH as a test

3) a. SB needs to do STH
b. STH needs to be done or STH needs doing

4) a. “~ing” or “to ~” after “begin, start, continue, bother, like, love, hate,” etc.
e.g.) It has started raining/to rain. I love meeting/to meet people.

b. but no ~ing after ~ing
e.g.) It’s starting to rain. (not …starting raining)

5) would prefer to do = would rather do
e.g.) Should we take a bus?

I’d prefer to drive.
I’d rather drive.


Be used to

1) I am used to (doing) STH = it isn’t strange or new to me
e.g.) I’m used to living alone. (= it isn’t strange for me to live alone)

2) I used to do STH = I did it regularly in the past but no longer do it
e.g.) I used to live alone. (= I lived alone before, but now I don’t)


Infinitive & ~ing

1) to + base form:
a. why SB does STH (like an adverb)
– A friend of mine called to invite me to a party.

b. why STH exists (like a noun)
– This fence is to keep people out of the yard.

c. what can be done or must be done (like an adjective)
– It’s hard to find a place to park downtown.

2) for + noun (purpose); to + verb (purpose) – I’m going to Spain for a vacation.
– I’m going to Spain to learn Spanish.

3) so that (purpose)
– I hurried so that I wouldn’t be late.
– She’s so rich that she even has her own jet.

4) adj. + to
– It is hard to understand him. = He is hard to understand.
same structures with easy, difficult, safe, expensive, cheap, etc.

5) (It’s) nice of (you) to …
– It was nice of you to take me to the airport.
same with kind, considerate, foolish, generous, etc.

6) a. afraid to do (intentionally)
b. afraid of ~ing (no intention)
– I was afraid to go near the dog because I was afraid of being bitten.

7) a. SB did STH + I saw this
→ I saw SB do STH (complete action)

b. SB was doing STH + I saw this
→ I saw SB doing STH (incomplete action)

8) ~ing phrases
a. one action happens during another action
b. why SB does STH
c. two things happen at the same time
d. one action happen before another action: first action → having done

– She finished her work. Then she went home. → Having finished her work, she went home.

e. short action follows another short action:
– Just after he took a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.
→ Taking a key out of his pocket, he opened the door.


Countable & Uncountable

1) countables
a student
some songs
any apples
many pictures
(a) few things to do

2) uncountables
a bowl of rice some music
any apple juice much shopping
(a) little work to do


Articles (a/an & the)

I had a sandwich and an apple for lunch. The sandwich wasn’t very good, but the apple was delicious.

1) one specific thing; clear situation
– Did Paula get the job she applied for?
– I took a taxi to the station. (in that town)

2) only one of STH
– What is the longest river in the world?

3) the sky, the sea, the ocean, the ground, the country, the environment, the same, the movies, the theater, the radio, etc.

4) What did you have for breakfast? do not use “the”

5) noun + number
the Gate 10, the Room 126, the page 9

6) school / the school (general idea)
– Every day Claudia goes to school.
– Today Claudia’s mother has gone to the school to speak to her daughter’s teacher.
(specific school; Claudia’s school) similar way with prison, college, church, etc.

7) – It’s time to go to bed now.
– I sat down on the bed. (specific)

8) – The giraffe is the tallest of all animals.
a specific type of animal; not a specific giraffe same way for musical instruments

9) the + adj. = a group of people
– the young = the young people

10) The + nationality = the people of that country
– the French = the people of France


The (definite article)

→do not normally use “the” with proper nouns
→however, use “the” with:

1) Republic, Kingdom
2) oceans, rivers, canals, gulfs
3) plural names
4) most buildings
5) prepositional phrases
6) most newspapers and many organizations


Reflexive pronouns

1) when subject = object
2) -selves & each other (one another)
-Kate and Joe stood in front of the mirror and looked at themselves.
-Kate looked at Joe; Joe looked at Kate. They looked at each other (one another).

3) to emphasize


A friend of mine / my own house / by myself

1) We took a trip with some friends of ours.
2) my own … / your own …, etc.: only mine/yours, not shared or borrowed
3) on my own/on your own, etc. = independently
4) by myself/by yourself, etc. = alone, without other people

There … & It …

1) there: STH for the first time, it exists
2) it: a specific thing
3) it: placeholder
4) it: distance, time, day, weather, etc.

Some & Any

1) some: in positive sentences and offering or asking questions
2) any: in negative and most questions, often after “if”, “it doesn’t matter which (→ any + singular)”


Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty

1)  much and little with uncountable nouns
2)  many and few with plural nouns
3)  a lot of / lots of / plenty of with both
4)  much: unusual in positive sentences
5)  many, a lot of, and lots of: in all kinds of sentences
6) little and few: negative meaning
7) a little and a few: more positive


Both, Neither, Either (for two things)

1) both … and …
– Both Ann and Tom were late.

2) neither … nor …
– Neither Liz nor Robin came to the party.

3) either … or …
– He’s either Spanish or Italian.


All, Every, Whole

1) not normally use ‘all’ alone
– I’ll do all to help. (X)
– I’ll do all I can to help. (O)
– He thinks he knows all. (X)
– He thinks he knows everything. (O) – He knows all about computers. (O)

2) every: singular
– Every seat in the theater was taken.

3) whole: complete, entire
– Did you read the whole book? (all of the book) – Lila has lived her whole life in Chile.


Each & Every

→similar but not exactly the same

1) each
a. separately, one by one
– Study each sentence carefully.
b. for a small number

2) every
a. as a group, similar to “all”
– Every sentence must have a verb.
b. for a large number

3) can use ‘each’ alone
– None of the rooms was the same. Each (= each room) was different.

4) can’tuse‘every’alone
-A: Have you read all these books?
B: Yes, every one.


Relative clauses

→ tells us which person or thing the speaker means

1) relative pronoun → subject
– The woman is a doctor. She lives next door.
→ The woman who lives next door is a doctor.

2) what = the thing(s) that What happened was my fault.
Everything that happened was my fault.

3) relative pronoun → object
– The woman was away on vacation. I wanted to see her.
→ The woman who I wanted to see was away on vacation.

4) relative pronoun → possessive
– We saw some people.
Their car had broken down.
→ We saw some people whose car had broken down.

5) relative adverbs
– The restaurant was near the airport. We had dinner there.
→ The restaurant where we had dinner was near the airport. 

– The restaurant was near the airport. It was built 100 years ago.
→The restaurant that was built 100 years ago was near the airport. relative pronoun

5) relative adverbs
– The last time (that/when) I saw her, she looked fine.
– The reason (that/why) I’m calling you is to ask your advice.

6) two types
a. type 1: tells us necessarily which person or thing the speaker means → necessary information
– We stayed at the hotel (that/which) you recommended.
※ can use “that”; do not use commas; can leave out “who/which/that” when it is the object

b. type 2: doesn’t tell us which person or thing the speaker means; simply adds an additional thing to the antecedent → extra information

– My brother Jim, who lives in Houston, is a doctor.
※ cannot use “that”; use commas; cannot leave out “who” or “which”

7) “-ing” and “-ed” phrases
– Do you know the woman talking to Tom? what SB (or STH) is/was doing; an active meaning
-The boy injured in the accident was taken to the hospital.
what SB (or STH) is/was done; a passive meaning


Adjectives & Adverbs

1) ending in “~ing” and “~ed”: STH is ~ing; SB is ~ed
– My job is boring. – I’m bored with my job.

2) opinion goes before fact
– a nice long summer vacation
– an interesting young man

3) order of fact adjectives
1, size & length
2, shape & width
3, age
4, color
5, origin
6, material

4) two or more adjectives with same order → use “and”
– a black and white dress
– a red, white, and green flag

5) not normally use more than 3 adjectives at the same time
– a tall thin girl
– an old white cotton shirt

a. adjectives tell us about a noun
– Tom is a careful driver.
– Your English is good.
– Jack is a fast runner. – I was late.

b. adverbs tell us about a verb (answer for “how”) – Tom drives carefully.
– You speak English well.
– Jack can run fast. – I got up late this morning.

2. So & Such
1)  so + adj./adv.
– so stupid; so quickly

2)  such + noun
– such a story; such people

3)  a. so … that
– I was so tired that I fell asleep in the armchair.

b. such … that
– It was such a good book that I couldn’t put it down.


Enough & Too

1) enough + noun
– I can’t run very far. I don’t have enough energy.

2) adj./adv. + enough
– I can’t run very far. I’m not fit enough.

3) too … to: so … that … not
– The food was so hot that we couldn’t eat it. – The food was too hot to eat.


Comparatives & Superlatives

→ for adjectives and adverbs → comparatives: for two things → superlatives: for more than two things

1) -er than; the -est:
a. one-syllable words
b. two-syllable words that end in “-y”

2) more … than; the most … : two-or-more- syllable words

3) use both forms with:
– clever, narrow, quiet, shallow, simple

4) irregular forms
a. good: better, the best; bad: worse, the worst
b. far: farther/further, the farthest/the furthest
– It’s a long walk from here to the park— farther (or further) than I thought.
– use “further” only when meaning “more” or “additional”

5) before comparatives you can use:
– much, a lot, far; a bit, a little, slightly
– Let’s drive. It’s much cheaper. (not “very cheaper”)
– Could you speak a bit more slowly? 6) use present perfect after a superlative
– What’s the most important decision you’ve ever had to make?


Word order

1) verb (transitive) + object – I like my job.
2) place + time
– I’m going to Paris on Monday.
– Sarah gave me a ride home after the party.

→ possible to put time at the beginning
– After the party, Sarah gave me ride home.

3) some adverbs with the verb a. adverb + verb
– Helen always drives to work. b. be + adverb
– You are never on time.
c. verb 1 (aux.) + adverb + verb 2 (main)

– I can never remember her name.
– The meeting will probably be canceled.


Still / Yet / Already / Even

1) still: STH is continuing
– It’s 10:00, and Joe is still in bed.

2) yet: until now, mainly in negatives and questions; at the end of a sentence
– It’s 10:00, and Joe isn’t here yet.

– Is he here yet?
→ still: possible in negatives; stronger feeling
– I wrote to him months ago, and he still hasn’t replied.

3) already: sooner than expected
– I’ve just had lunch, and I’m already hungry.

4) even: STH is unusual or surprising
– They are very rich. They even have their own jet.
– He always wears a coat – even in hot weather.


Although, though; In spite of, despite

1) – Although/Though the traffic was bad, we arrived – In spite of/Despite the traffic, on time.
2) though: at the end of a sentence
– I see them every day. I’ve never spoken to them, though.

3) even though: stronger form of “although”
– Even though I was really tired, I couldn’t sleep.

In case

1) in case (conjunction) + clause: because it is possible that … (why SB does (STH))
– I’ll leave my cell phone on in case Jane calls. = because it is possible that Jane calls

2) in case of (preposition) + noun: if there is … – In case of emergency, call this number.
= if there is an emergency

3) compare:
– We’ll buy some more food in case Tom comes. = show a reason
– We’ll buy some more food if Tom comes. = show just a possibility
– We’ll buy some more food when Tom comes. = show being sure to happen


Unless, As long as, Provided/Providing

1) unless: except if; if … not
– I’ll see you tomorrow unless I have to work late.
= except if I have to work late – Unless we leave now, we’ll be late.
= If we don’t leave now

2) as long as/so long as = “if” or “on provided (that)/providing (that) condition that”
– You can borrow my car as long as/so long as you promise not to drive too fast.


Like & As

1) as: at the same time as
– I watched her as she opened the letter.

2) as & when
a. as: two things happen at the same time
– As we walked home, we talked about what we would have for dinner.

b. when: one thing happens after another
– When we got home, we started cooking dinner.

3) as: because
– As they lived near us, we used to see them pretty often.

4) like & as
a. like: similar to, the same as; preposition + N

– She’s a teacher like me. b. like: for example; such as
– Some sports, like race-car driving, can be dangerous.

c. as: in the same way as; subordinator + clause
– You should have done it as I showed you.
– You should have done it like this.

d. as: other meanings
– You can do as you like. (= do what you like)
– They did as they promised.

e. as (preposition): in the position/form of, etc.
– A few years ago, I worked as a taxi driver.


For / During / While

1) for (prep.) + N: a period of time; answer for “how long”
– We watched TV for two hours last night.

2) during (prep.) + N: answer for “when”
– I fell asleep during the movie.

3) while (subordinator) + clause; answer for “when”
– I fell asleep while I was watching TV.

By & Until

1) by: no later than
– Fred will be back by Monday.
– I’ll have finished my work by 11:30.

2) until (or till): how long a situation continues – Fred will be away until Monday.
– I’ll be working until 11:30.


At / On / In

1) time
a. at: for the time of day
– at 5:00; at midnight; at lunchtime

b. on: for days and dates
– on Friday(s); on May 16, 1999; on Christmas Day; on the weekend, on weekends

c. in: for longer periods
– in October; in 1988; in (the) winter

d. no at/on/in before last/next/this/every
– I’ll see you next Friday. (not on next Friday)
– They got married last March.

e. on time: punctual, not late
– The 11:45 train left on time.

f. in time: soon enough
– Will you be home in time for dinner?

2) position
a. in a room; in a garden; in a pool; in a line; in the sky
b. at the bus stop; at the door; at the intersection; at the top; at the bottom
c. on the ceiling; on the wall; on a page; on the left; on the first floor
d. on a bus / on a train / on a plane / on a ship but in a car / in a taxi


To & Into

1)to → □ (opp.from ← □)

a. go to bed; come to my house; go back to Italy; drive to the airport
b. get to London; get to work; get to the party c. go home; come home; get home; arrive home; on the way home, etc. (no preposition)

2) into  (opp. out of  )

a. go into, get into: enter
– She got out of the car and went into a shop.

b. get on/off a bus/a train/a plane (not get into/out of) – She got on the bus, and I never saw her again.
– You need to get off the train at the next station.


1) to say how we do STH
– Can I pay by credit card?
– You can contact me by phone. → “by car” but “in my car”
“by train” but “on the train”

2) to show an agent in the passive
– Have you ever been bitten by a dog?
– This house was built by my grandfather.

3) to mean “next to / beside”
– Stand by me.
– The light switch is by the door.

4) to express an extent
– Claire’s salary has increased by $300 / by 10 percent.
– Carl won the race by five meters.


Noun + preposition

1) noun + for
– a check for; a demand for; a reason for
– They sent me a check for $200.
– The train was late, but nobody knew the reason for the delay.

2) noun + of
– an advantage of; a cause of; a picture of
– Rachel showed me some pictures of her family.

3) noun + in
– an increase in; a rise in
– There has been an increase in the number of road accidents recently.

4) noun + to/toward
– damage to; an answer to; an attitude toward/to
– His attitude toward/to/about his job is very negative.

5) noun + with/between
– a relationship with; a difference between
– Do you have a good relationship with your parents?
– There are some differences between British and American English.


Adjective + preposition

1) adj. + of/to SB
– It was very kind of you to help me.
– They have always been very nice to me.

2) adj. + about/with/at
a. angry/mad/upset/nervous about STH

mad at, upset with,furious/angry at/with → SB for doing STH
– Are nervous about the exam?
– Are you upset with me for being late?

b. excited/worried/upset/nervous/happy about

– Are you excited about going away next week?

c. delighted/pleased/satisfied/happy with STH
– They were delighted with the present I gave them.

3) adj. + at/by/with
a. surprised/shocked/amazed at/by STH

– Everybody was surprised at/by the news.

– I hope you weren’t shocked by/at what I said. b. impressed with/by SB/STH

– I’m very impressed with/by her English. c. fed up/bored with STH

– I’m fed up with my job.

4) sorry about/for
a. sorry about a situation or STH that happened
– I’m sorry about the mess. I’ll clean it up later. b. sorry for/about STH you did
– I’m sorry for/about shouting at you yesterday.

5) adj. + of
– afraid of; fond of; suspicious of; aware of; capable of; full/short of; typical of; tired of; sure of/about
– They didn’t trust me. They were suspicious of my motives.
– I’m a bit short of money.
– It’s typical of him to keep everybody waiting. 6) adj. + at/to/from/in/on/with/for

a. good/bad/excellent at
– I’m not very good at repairing things.

b. married/engaged to; similar to
– Louise is married to an American. c. different from/than
– The movie was different from/than what I’d expected.

d. interested in
– Paula is interested in politics.

e. dependent on (but independent of)
– I don’t want to be dependent on anybody.

f. crowded with
– The streets were crowded with tourists.

g. famous for; responsible for
– The Italian city of Florence is famous for its art treasures.
– Who was responsible for all that noise last night?


Verb + preposition

1) verb + to
– Who were you talking to?
– Can you explain this word to me?
– They apologized to me for their mistake.
– I called the airline to cancel my flight. (not called to the airline)
– You didn’t answer my email. – Ask me if you need any help?

2) verb + at
– Why are you looking at me like that?
– I look stupid. Everybody will laugh at me.
– Don’t point that knife at me. It’s dangerous.
– He got very angry and started shouting at me. – He shouted to me across from the street.
– Somebody threw an egg at the politician.
– Lisa threw the keys to me from the window.

3) verb + about
– We talked about a lot of things at the meeting. – We discussed what we should do.

4) verb + for
– Why don’t you apply for the job?
– I haven’t seen her since she left (home) for work.
– He needs somebody to care for him. – He doesn’t care about other people.

5) look for (try to find) & look after (take care of)
– Can you help me look for my keys?
– Can you look after the house while we’re away?

6) hear about/of/from
– Did you hear about the fire at the hotel?

-A: Who is Tom Hart?
B: I’ve never heard of him.
– Have you heard from Nicole recently?

7) think about (consider) & think of (produce)
– I’ve thought about what you said, and I’ve decided to take your advice.
– It was my idea. I thought of it first.
– When I’m alone, I often think of you. or … think about you. (little difference)
– My sister is thinking of/about going to Canada.

8) dream about (when you are asleep) & dream of/about (= imagine)
– I dreamed about you last night.
– Do you dream of/about being rich and famous? -A: Don’t tell anyone what I said.
B: No, I wouldn’t dream of it.

9) complain (to SB) about & complain of
– We complained to the manager of the restaurant about the food.
– We called the doctor because Alex was complaining of a pain in his stomach.

10) remind SB about & remind SB of
– It’s good you reminded me about the meeting.
– This house reminds me of my grandfather.

11) verb + of
– Abby accused me of being selfish.
– We had an enormous meal. It consisted of seven courses.

12) verb + in
– Do you believe in God? (= do you believe that God exists?)
– The story can’t be true. I don’t believe it.
– Helen specializes in corporate law. 13) verb + into
– Our house was broken into a few days ago. – A bus crashed into a wall.
– The book is divided into three parts.

14) verb + with
– A bus collided with a car.
– Take this saucepan, and fill it with water.

15) verb + on
– I tried to concentrate on my work.
– How much do you spend on food each week?


Phrasal verbs

→ verb + particle (preposition or adverb)
→ go up (prep.); eat up (adv.)
→ fall off (prep.); run off (adv.)
→ e.g.) go up, look after, turn on; look forward to, get along with, run away from, etc.

1) meaning types
a. verb (50%) + particle (50%)
– go up, come out

2. Phrasal verbs
b. verb (90%) + particle (10%) – eat up, spit out
c. verb (100%) + particle (0%) – abide by, hunker down
d. verb + particlenew meaning – make up, get over

2) separability
a. separable
noun (obj.): turn the switch on (O); turn on the switch (O)
pronoun (obj.): turn it on (O); turn on it (X) noun: fill these forms out (O);

fill out these forms (O)
pronoun: fill them out (O); fill out them (X)

b. inseparable
noun: look after John (O); look John after (X) pronoun: look after him (O); look him after (X) noun: work on Jill (O); work Jill on (X)

(try to persuade SB)
pronoun: work on her (O); work her on (X)

c. more examples
John ran up the hill. (up: prep.) (O) John ran the hill up. (X)
John ran up the flag. (up: particle) (O) John ran the flag up. (O)
John ran up it (= the hill). (O)
John ran it (= the hill) up. (X)

John ran up it (= the flag). (X) John ran it (= the flag) up. (O) That is the flag he ran UP. That is the hill he RAN up.

※capital letters → stressed


Questions and Answers

Part A: Put brackets around the underlined relative pronoun if it can be omitted from these sentences.

1. We talked about the party (which) Sarah wants to organize for my birthday.
2. To get to Frank’s house, take the main road that bypasses the village.
3. The paintings (which) Mr. Flowers has in his house are worth around $100,000.
4. Let’s go through the main points (that) he made in his lecture.
5. He received a low mark for his essay, which was only one page long.
6. Mrs. Richmond, who is 42, has three children.
7. Don is a friend (who) we stayed with in Australia.
8. In the shop window there’s a sign that says “10 % off.”
9. The couple who live next to us have sixteen grandchildren.
10. There was little (that) we could do to help her.

Part B: If necessary, correct or make improvements to these sentences. If they are already correct, write √.

1. There’s something which I should tell you. ☞ ‘which’ is possible, but less likely than ‘that’ or ‘__’
2. The doctor whom Ingrid went to see was very thorough. ☞ ‘whom’ seems rather formal here and less likely than ‘who,’ or ‘that,’ or ‘__’

3. Yesterday was the hottest day I can remember. ☞ √ ‘that I can’ is also possible
4. There isn’t much can go wrong with the machine. ☞ …much that can…
5. Thieves whom stole paintings from the Notford Art Gallery have been arrested in Paris. ☞ whom who
6. It may be the most important decision which you will ever take. ☞ ‘which’ is possible, but less likely than ‘that’ or ‘__’

7. The boy took the photograph was paid $100. ☞ The boy who took the photograph was paid $100.
8. I heard many different accents in the room, but none which I could identify as British. ☞ ‘which’ is possible, but less likely than ‘that’

9. There’s this dream which I have every night about falling downstairs. ☞ ‘which’ is possible, but less likely than ‘that’ or ‘__’
10. He just said anything which came into his head. ☞ ‘which’ is possible, but less likely than ‘that’


Part C: Define these items using “whose” and “in which.” You may need to use a dictionary.

1. A lexicographer is a person whose job is to write dictionaries.
2. A widow is a woman whose husband has died and who has not remarried.
3. An actuary is a person whose job is to decide how much insurance companies should charge their customers.

4. A furnace is a container in which things are melted or burned.
5. A gazebo is a small garden building in which people can sit to enjoy the view. 
6. Polo is a sport in which horse riders hit a ball using hammers with long handles.


Part D: Join the sentence halves using “which” or “whom” after an appropriate preposition.


1. My English teacher Mrs. Brookes was someone for whom I had great respect.
2. Until 1914 the pound sterling was the currency in/with which most world trade was conducted.
3. They have changed the date on/by which the furniture is to be delivered.
4. Pasteurization was discovered by the French chemist Louis Pasteur, after whom it was named.
5. He was persuaded to stay in England by Charles Dickens, to whom he had shown his novel.
6. There are a number of safety procedures of which you should be aware.
7. Details are in the instruction manual with which the printer was supplied.
8. Ms. Peters was left the money by her former husband, from whom she was divorced in 1995.


Part E: Combine the two sentences in each pair to make a new sentence containing a relative clause. Add commas where necessary.

1. Albert Einstein was a high school dropout. The world recognizes him as a genius.
Albert Einstein, whom the world recognizes as a genius, was a high school dropout.

2. As a young boy, Einstein had trouble in elementary and high school. He attended these schools in Germany.
As a young boy, Einstein, who attended schools in Germany, had trouble in elementary and high school.

3. He did poorly in certain subjects such as history and languages. He disliked them.
He did poorly in certain subjects such as history and languages, which he disliked.

4. The only subjects were mathematics and physics. He enjoyed them.
The only subjects that he enjoyed were mathematics and physics.

5. He developed theories. We use his theories to help us understand the nature of the universe.
He developed theories that we use to help us understand the nature of the universe.

6. Einstein is best known for his general theory of relativity. He began to develop this theory while living in Switzerland.
Einstein is best known for his general theory of relativity, which he began to develop while living in Switzerland.

7. John Fish explained the complex structure of DNA. He is a research chemist.
John Fish, who is a research chemist, explained the complex structure of DNA.

8. While he lectured, he showed us a slide. The slide diagrammed the double helix structure of DNA.
While he lectured, he showed us a slide that diagrammed the double helix structure of DNA.

9. Anyone must have a logical mind. He or she wants to be a computer programmer.
Anyone who wants to be a computer programmer must have a logical mind.

10. Fans quickly lose interest in a sports team. The team loses game after game.
Fans quickly lose interest in a sports team that loses game after game.